in: Dirk Willem de Velde / Mohammad A. Razzaque, Assessing aid for trade: effectiveness, current issues and future directions, London: The Commonwealth, 331-358
This report reviews the cases of China, India and Brazil to describe which major activities they have implemented to improve their trade performance. The report puts the spotlight on support for trade-related infrastructure, trade facilitation and state–business relations because of their importance for trade performance. The high cost of trading in many emerging economies and developing countries is a major obstacle to the improvement of their trade performance.
These costs are often the result of poor quality infrastructure and slow and cumbersome procedures at the border. Support for trade-related infrastructure such as roads, railways, ports, energy and telecommunication and, second, trade facilitation and the improvement of rules and procedures that govern how goods cross borders, seek to address these binding constraints.