Micro and Small Enterprise Upgrading in Egypt, India and the Philippines
Being important development agents, micro and small enterprises play a huge role in developing countries. However, only a minority of these firms manage to upgrade their businesses to the next level of productivity, assets and employment. Based on empirical work in Egypt, India and Philippines, this project aims at identifying critical success factors and the reasons why other firms not pursue the same successful strategies, in order to help enterprises in upgrading their business.
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), KfW
2012 - 2017 / completed
In developing countries micro and small enterprises (MSEs) constitute a large part of the industrial fabric, which is why policy makers and scholars alike look at small-scale entrepreneurs as important development agents in society. By offering possibilities to gain income, training and work experience micro and small enterprises are said to provide livelihoods to millions of people worldwide (Altenburg / Eckhardt 2006). Moreover, donors and policy-makers stylise small enterprises as drivers of private sector development.
However, the view of micro and small enterprises as being a seedbed for future enterprise growth and upgrading is open to doubt. Across developed and developing economies empirical observations suggest that most micro and small enterprises are stagnating (Mead 1994; Mead / Liedholm 1998; Cotter 1996; Fajnzylber 2006; Fajnzylber / Maloney / Montes-Rojas 2009). Only a minority of these firms manages to upgrade their businesses to the next level of productivity, assets and employment (Berner / Gomez / Knorringa 2008). Typically, few small enterprises pass the threshold of 20 employees. As a result, there is a “missing middle” between the poles of large and micro/small enterprises.
While the majority of small enterprises stagnate there are some exceptional cases which actually manage progressing from micro and small into medium enterprises. The literature refers to this group as ‘upgraders’.
To be precise, at a conceptual level enterprise upgrading has two constituting elements – one quantitative and one qualitative: First, enterprise upgrading is understood as a step from a business with stagnating or declining income, productivity and employment to a business that significantly increases its income or number of paid workers. Secondly, enterprise upgrading includes qualitative improvements in products, processes and ways of organising production (Schmitz / Knorringa 2000).
The overarching research questions revolve around
- Why do some enterprises succeed in making progress while others do not?
- What are the critical success factors that facilitate the increase in employment, assets and production capabilities?
- How does the process of enterprise upgrading unfold?
Based on previous research enterprise success is not a mono-causal story but one of different factors coming together allowing for development to take place. The literature differentiates between critical success factors internal and external to the firm. While recent approaches have forwarded explanations mainly focusing on the role of external factors, such as a favourable institutional and regulatory environment as well as access to credit, this research project will be also focusing on factors internal to the firm, such as firm strategy, skill base and absorptive capacity for external knowledge. Including these internal firm factors is important to understand how firm characteristics match with external factors in explaining “combinations of success”. Accordingly, rather than stating that some factors matter for upgrading this research tries to uncover how these factors combined matter for the process of enterprise upgrading.
This research is innovative in three ways: First, it starts by identifying 60-70 successful upgraders and traces back which critical incidences explain their above-average performance; second, after having identified the critical success factors it cross-checks their relevance with a group of 60-70 micro enterprises in the same activities and location that have not (yet) upgraded and explores what prevents those firms from pursuing the same upgrading strategies; third, it compares three countries - the Philippines, Egypt and India – with very different traditions of entrepreneurship and external conditions. The comparative design shall help to identify systematic patterns of small enterprise growth and innovation.
The insights of this study will help to understand what might help enterprises in upgrading their businesses today. It will provide information for practitioners on how micro and small enterprise learn to initiate and organise innovation dynamics within their businesses. Findings of this research will help decision-makers to develop tailored policy interventions to push MSEs towards upgrading.
Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
Loewe, Markus / Anna Pegels / Tilman Altenburg (2015)
in: Loewe, Markus / Nicole Rippin (eds.), Translating an ambitious vision into global transformation: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, Bonn: German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), (Discussion Paper 7/2015), 51-58
A decade on: how relevant is the regulatory environment for micro and small enterprise upgrading after all?
Altenburg, Tilman / Aimée Hampel-Milagrosa / Markus Loewe (2016)
in: The European Journal of Development Research 29 (2), 457-475
Micro and small enterprises as drivers for job creation and decent work
Reeg, Caroline (2015)
Discussion Paper 10/2015
Micro and small enterprise upgrading in the Philippines: the role of the entrepreneur, enterprise, networks and business environment
Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée (2014)
ما هي العوامل التي تحدد الرتقاء بالمشاريع الصغيرة والمتوسطة في مصر؟ (Which factors constrain the upgrading of small and medium-size enterprises in Egypt?)
Loewe, Markus et al. (2015)
in: SME Advisor Arabia 2/2015, 48-54
The entrepreneur makes a difference: Evidence on MSE upgrading factors from Egypt, India, and the Philippines.
Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée, Loewe, Markus & Caroline Reeg (2015)
World Development 66(2), 118-130.
It’s not just the economy, stupid
Reeg, Caroline / Markus Loewe (2014)
published on The Broker online 01 October 2014
Entscheidende Faktoren für das Wachstum von Klein- und Kleinstunternehmen
Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée / Markus Loewe / Caroline Reeg (2014)
KFW (Entwicklungspolitik kompakt 5/2014)
Which factors determine the upgrading of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises? Evidence from Egypt, India and the Philippines
Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée / Markus Loewe / Caroline Reeg (2013)
Discussion Paper 21/2013
Which factors determine the upgrading of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)? The case of Egypt
Loewe, Markus / Iman Al-Ayouty / Annegret Altpeter / Lisa Borbein / Marc Chantelauze / Maximilian Kern / Elisabeth Niendorf / Malak Reda (2013)
Industrial policy in Egypt 2004–2011
Loewe, Markus (2013)
Discussion Paper 13/2013
Micro, small and medium enterprise upgrading in India: learning from success cases
Reeg, Caroline (2013)
Micro, small and medium enterprise upgrading in low- and middle-income countries: a literature review
Reeg, Caroline (2013)
Discussion Paper 15/2013
Ägypten: Großes Potenzial, schlechte Umsetzung; wie das Land die Produktivität seiner Ökonomie verbessern kann
Loewe, Markus (2012)
in: Internationale Politik 2/2012, Sonderheft: Länderporträt Ägypten, 4-11
Suche nach einer neuen Rolle: fehlender Strukturwandel als Gefahr für Syrien und Jordanien
Loewe, Markus (2011)
in: Neue Zürcher Zeutung, internationale Ausgabe 2.3.2011, 11
External Publications of 06 July 2020
External Publications of 05 July 2020