Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers (Nordic Working Papers)
At the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP19) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Warsaw, Parties were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 international climate change agreement, which is due to be concluded in Paris in December. Assessment and review (A&R) can help ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles. It can further help establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties by creating a shared understanding of Parties’ intended contributions, as well as the underlying information, data and assumptions. Moreover, A&R could increase ambition by providing an opportunity for feedback and exchange of ideas and approaches, and by encouraging additional reciprocal actions.At COP20 in Lima in 2014, Parties opted for only limited ex ante assessment prior to the Paris summit, asking the UNFCCC Secretariat to prepare a synthesis report of the INDCs communicated by Parties. Yet there are still many options on the table for the design and implementation of the 2015 agreement. This briefing paper draws lessons from existing review processes in - and outside the UNFCCC, and presents some of the key options.