The entrepreneur makes a difference: Evidence on MSE upgrading factors from Egypt, India, and the Philippines.

Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée, Loewe, Markus & Caroline Reeg
Externe Publikationen (2015)

World Development 66(2), 118-130.

Volltext/Document

In many low- and middle-income countries most micro and small enterprises (MSEs) struggle to upgrade into medium sized and large enterprises. An extensive literature offers manifold explanations for the phenomenon but no conclusive answer on what the most important factors for MSE upgrading are: entrepreneur or firm characteristics; personal or business networks; or the business environment. On the basis of extensive empirical research conducted in Egypt, India, and the Philippines this article argues that the entrepreneur and the entrepreneur’s coping strategies matter much more than what the recent literature on Doing Business indicators and the business environment would lead us to believe.

About the authors

Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée

Institutional and Agricultural Economist

Aimée Hampel-Milagrosa

Loewe, Markus

Economist

Markus Loewe
Caroline Reeg

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