In 2013, Parties to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 international climate change agreement.
Assessment and review (A&R) of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles. A&R can further help to establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties by creating a shared understanding of Parties’ intended contributions, as well as the underlying information, data and assumptions. Moreover, A&R can help to increase ambition by providing an opportunity for feedback and exchange of ideas and approaches, and by encouraging additional reciprocal actions.
A&R can focus on Parties’ contributions individually or collectively. A distinction can further be made between ex ante A&R, taking place before contributions are formalized; A&R of implementation, taking place during a contribution period; and ex-post A&R, taking place upon the conclusion of a contribution period.
Several questions regarding the design and organization of A&R under a 2015 agreement are still outstanding. This report examines the options for A&R, with a focus on the following questions:
What exactly should be assessed and reviewed? And how should A&R account for the possibility that contributions may cover not only mitigation, but also means of implementation and adaptation?